Saturday, March 11, 2017

Early Chinese Music Resources: Qing
compiled by David Badagnani (rev. 20 July 2018)


In an effort to make this repertoire more accessible, this document contains resources related to the known surviving pieces and songs from China's Qing Dynasty (1644-1912).
Links to scores are highlighted in blue.  Links to recordings and videos are highlighted in pink.
Links to textual sources are highlighted in green.

----------------------------------------------

Zhonghe Shaoyue

Zhonghe Shaoyue (中和韶乐) was the official name for the ritual/sacrificial music of the Qing Dynasty. Its instrumentation and repertoire were based on traditions inherited from the Ming Dynasty. The name Shaoyue (韶乐, "shao music") refers to the court music of the mythical emperor Shun, which was also known as Shunyue (舜乐).

Videos of Zhonghe Shaoyue:


----------------------------------------------

Fanbu Hezou

Fanbu Hezou (番部合奏) is the name of the Mongolian division of the yanyue (宴乐, banquet/entertainment music) ensembles of the Qing court. This music is believed to have been adapted, at least in part, in the 17th century from earlier court music of the Mongol khans. It was quite popular among the Qing Dynasty's Manchu rulers and the ensemble was documented by several court painters.

The pieces in this collection are as follows:
1. Yinzi 《引子》 (Prelude)
2. Da He Qu 《大合曲》
3. Ran Si Qu 《染丝曲》 (Dyeing Silk Tune)
4. Gong Mo 《公莫》
5. Ya Zheng Ci 《雅政词》
6. Fenghuang Ming 《凤凰鸣》 (Song of the Phoenix)
7. 乘驿使
8. Tu Ju 兔罝
9. 西鲽曲
10. Qian Qiu Ci 千秋词
11. Honghu Ci 《鸿鹄
12. Qing Junhou 《庆君侯》
13. Qing Furen 《庆夫人》
14. Xian Jiangnan 羡江南
15. 救度词
16. Da Fan Qu 大番曲
17. Xiao Fan Qu 番曲
18. 游逸词
19. Xingsheng Ci 兴盛词
20. Yanye Qu 艳冶曲
21. 《庆圣师》
22. Bai Lu Ci 白鹿词
23. Hehuan Qu 《合欢曲》
24. Bai Tuo Ge 《白驼歌》 (Song of the White Camel)
25. Liuying Qu 《流莺曲》
26. Junhou Ci 君侯
27. Furen Ci 《夫人
28. Xianshi Ci 贤士词
29. Wu Ci 舞词
30. Taogu Qu 《鼗鼓曲》
31. Tiaohe Qu 《调和曲》 (Harmonious Tune)

The titles of the above pieces are documented in the Qing Shigao 《清史稿》 (Draft History of Qing), the official history of the Qing Dynasty:

----------------------------------------------

"Airs chinois"

The French Jesuit historian Jean-Baptiste Du Halde (1674-1743) published transcriptions, in staff notation, of five "Airs chinois" (Chinese tunes) in the third volume of his four-volume Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l’empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise (Paris: Le Mercier, 1735). Du Halde did not himself visit China, instead basing his book on the reports of 17 Jesuit missionaries who had traveled there. This work is significant in that it represents the first European publication to feature notated Chinese music. It was later reprinted in the Netherlands (1736) and England (1741).

Note that these transcriptions utilize the so-called "French clef" (also called French violin clef). This clef, which was used primarily in French music of the 17th and 18th centuries, places G on the bottom line of the staff and reads the same as the bass claf transposed up two octaves.

 Facsimile of "Airs chinois":
Although the tunes are not assigned titles, several of them continue to be performed in China or have been published in other sources since 1735, and thus can be identified (keeping in mind that in many cases the same tune can be called by two or more different titles):

The pieces in this collection are as follows:
1. In the context of Kunqu, where it is used to set the stage for scenes of banquets or other festivities, this tune is a dizi qupai (笛子曲牌) called "Jie Jie Gao" (《节节高》, Rising Higher and Higher); in northern Kunqu the same tune may alternatively be called "Wan Nian Huan" 《万年欢》. According to François Picard, who contributed a chapter about this qupai to the book Qupai in Chinese Music: Melodic Models in Form and Practice (ed. Alan R. Thrasher, 2016), the tune's original name is "Liu Yao Jin" 《柳摇金》.
Video of "Jie Jie Gao," performed as part of a production of the Kunqu opera "The Peony Pavilion" (Mudan Ting, 《牡丹亭》:
Video of "Jie Jie Gao" from the CD Vêpres à la Vierge en Chine (K617, 2004):
2. Usually called "Wan Nian Huan" 《万年欢》, this instrumental qupai is probably best known for its use in the Ming Dynasty Kunqu opera "The Peony Pavilion" (Mudan Ting, 《牡丹亭》).
Video of "Wan Nian Huan," performed as part of a filmed production of the Kunqu opera "The Peony Pavilion" (Mudan Ting, 《牡丹亭》:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWuEZkjK7ak&t=25m36s
Video of "Wan Nian Huan," performed by a Teochew da luogu ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8NDnvax2rw
3. Unknown
4. Unknown
5. This tune appears as a Chinese folk song called "Tan Qingjia" (《探亲家》, Visiting the In-Laws). It is also used in the middle section of the solo pipa piece "Long Chuan" (Dragon Boat), in the Pudong School version by Chen Zijing (陈子敬, 1837-1891).
Video of "Tan Qingjia":
Video of "Long Chuan" ("Tan Qingjia" melody starts at 3:00):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XIcV5kBVIbw&t=03m00s

----------------------------------------------


Jiugong Dacheng Nan-Bei Ci Gongpu

Jiugong Dacheng Nan-Bei Ci Gongpu 《九宫大成南北词宫谱》 (Compendium of Official Scores of Southern and Northern Arias in Nine Modes), often referred to as Jiugong Dacheng Pu 《九宫大成谱》 for brevity's sake, is a massive compendium of scores in gongche notation for arias of theater plays, compiled between 1741 and 1746 during the reign of Emperor Qianlong (r. 1735-1796). Consisting of 82 volumes (actually juan, 卷, scrolls or fascicles), the collection comprises 4,466 musical scores (qupu, 曲谱) belonging to 2,094 qupai (曲牌, poetic/tune patterns). The collection includes tunes claimed to date back to the Tang, Five Dynasties, and Song dynasties (though they have been partially adapted to meet the tastes of Qing-era audiences), as well as melodies from the Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing eras. Despite the use of the term ci in the collection's title, it contains arias in shi, ci, and qu forms. All the music was intended to be sung in the style of Kunqu, the classical opera form most popular at that time.

Facsimile of Jiugong Dacheng Nan-Bei Ci Gongpu:


----------------------------------------------

De la Musique moderne des Chinois

An unpublished manuscript by the French Jesuit missionary Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (1718-1793), De la Musique moderne des Chinois, which contains explanations, illustrations, and scores of Chinese pieces in gongche and staff notation, was written in Beijing in 1754. Amiot served as a missionary in China from 1750 until his death in 1793.

Facsimile of De la Musique moderne des Chinois:
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105513595

----------------------------------------------

Qingyin Shifan

The surviving scores in the Qingyin shifan (清音十番) tradition of Qing Dynasty palace entertainment music, known since 1920 as Chengde Qingyin Hui (承德清音会), comprise 16 pieces. The tradition probably dates to at least the 18th century and is said to have been adapted from shifan music of the Jiangnan region.



The pieces in this collection are as follows:
1. Yinzi 《引子》 (Prelude)
2. Mei Hua San Nong 《梅花三弄》 (Three Variations of "Plum Blossoms")
Video of "Mei Hua San Nong": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3MbufCmfHU&t=815s
3. Lang Tao Sha 《浪淘沙》 (Waves Washing the Sands)
Video of "Lang Tao Sha":
4. Yue Xia Haitang 《月下海棠》(The Crabapple Under the Moon)
5. Gusao Bai Yue 《姑嫂拜月》
Video of "Gusao Bai Yue":
6. Chun Lai 《春来》(Spring Comes)
Video of "Chun Lai":
7. Qiu Lai 《秋来》(Autumn Comes)
Score of "Qiu Lai" (page 1 of 2):
Score of "Qiu Lai" (page 2 of 2):
Video of "Qiu Lai" (30:26-34:32):
8. Dong Lai 《冬来》(Winter Comes)
Score of "Dong Lai":
Video of "Dong Lai" (38:27-40:22):
9. Weizi 《尾子》
10. Shui Long Yin 《水龙吟》(The Water Dragon's Hum)
11. Qixing Luo 《七星落》
Video of "Qixing Luo" (34:30-38:18):
12. Xi Huanghua 《惜黄花》(Cherishing Yellow Blooms)
Video of "Xi Huanghua":
13. Xiao Liangzhou 《小凉州》
Video of "Xiao Liangzhou":
14. Xia Lai 《夏来》(Summer Comes)
Video of "Xia Lai":
15. Yu Furong 《玉芙蓉》(Jade[-White] Lotus)
16. Wujiang Du 《乌江渡》

2011 CCTV documentary about Qingyin shifan:

TV documentary about Qingyin shifan:

----------------------------------------------

Xian-Di Pipa Pu

The Xian-Di Pipa Pu 《弦笛琵琶谱》, a book published in Guangzhou in 1770 and containing the scores for 13 pieces in gongche notation, was unknown in China until 2014, when a unique copy was discovered in the collection of the Cambridge University Library.

The pieces in this collection are as follows:
1. Si Da Jing 四大景
2. Shui Long Yin 水龙吟
3. Yin Xi Si 银细丝》 (A Fine Silver Thread), also called Nao Wugeng 闹五更》 (Boisterousness at Midnight)
4. Ku Huangtian 哭皇天》 (Crying Out to the Heavens)
5. Xin Shui Ling 新水令
6. Yi Zhi Hua 一枝花》 (A Stem of Flowers), also called Huagu Ge 花鼓歌》 (Flower Drum Song)
7. Dao Chui Lian 倒垂莲
8. Da Jin Dui 大金对
9. Xi Diao 西调》 (Melody from the West)
10. Xiao Baimen 小拜门
11. Qing Jiang Yin 清江引
12. Bai Baota 拜宝塔》 (Worshiping at the Pagoda)
13. Ji Gongzai 鸡公仔

----------------------------------------------

"Divertissements chinois" and "Musique Sacrée"

From an unpublished manuscript entitled Mélanges sur la Chine et les Chinois by the French Jesuit missionary Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (1718-1793), "Divertissements chinois" (or "Concerts de Musique chinoise") and "Musique Sacrée" contain scores of many secular and sacred Chinese pieces in gongche and hybrid gongche-staff notation, was written in Beijing in 1779. Amiot served as a missionary in China from 1750 until his death in 1793.

Facsimile of Divertissements chinois and Musique Sacrée:
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b100340719/

Video of Deuxième divertissement chinois:

Video of Troisième divertissement chinois:

----------------------------------------------

"Chinese Popular Airs"

"Molihua" (with lyrics) plus nine textless "Chinese Popular Airs" are presented in staff notation in Travels in China, Containing Descriptions, Observations, And Comparison, Made And Collected in the Course of a Short Residence at the Imperial Palace of Yuen-Min-Yuen by John Barrow (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1804). Barrow (1764-1848) served as the comptroller for the Macartney Embassy, the first British diplomatic mission to China, which took place in 1793.

The pieces in this collection are as follows:
1. Title unknown
2. Title unknown
3. A variant of "Liu Ban," "Ba Ban," or "Xi Diao"
4. "Wan Nian Huan"
5. Title unknown
6. "Jie Jie Gao" (According to François Picard, who contributed a chapter about this qupai to the book Qupai in Chinese Music: Melodic Models in Form and Practice (ed. Alan R. Thrasher, 2016), the tune's original name is "Liu Yao Jin" 《柳摇金》)
7. "Wan Nian Huan"
8. Title unknown
9. Title unknown
10. Molihua ● Facsimile of Travels in China:
https://archive.org/details/travelsinchinaco00barr
----------------------------------------------

Xiansuo Beikao

Xiansuo Beikao 《弦索备考》 (String Music Reference), also known as Xiansuo Shisan Tao 《弦索十三套》 (13 Suites for Strings), compiled by Rong Zhai (荣斋; style name: Ming Yi, 明谊), a nobleman, scholar, and musician of Mongolian ethnicity and published in 1814, contains 13 pieces of instrumental music, 11 of them scored for four specific instruments: huqin (probably sihu), xianzi (sanxian), pipa, and zheng; the remaining two pieces, "Hehuan Ling" and "Jiangjun Ling," are only written out for zheng.

The pieces in this collection are as follows:
1. Hehuan Ling 《合欢令》 (Song-Poem: Happy Together) Video of "Hehuan Ling," performed by ensemble: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1xDOvM-2ok Video of "Hehuan Ling," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Hehuan Ling," performed by sanxian and sihu:
2. Jiangjun Ling 《将军令》
Video of "Jiangjun Ling," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azNer_HANkA
Video of "Jiangjun Ling," performed by guzheng ensemble:
Video of "Jiangjun Ling," performed by guzheng ensemble with added percussion:
Video of "Jiangjun Ling," performed by guzheng ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sCBVLlJawPc
3. Shiliu Ban 《十六板》
Video of "Shiliu Ban," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Shiliu Ban," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YX51xsKo7T4
Video of "Shiliu Ban," performed by guzheng ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PSO6WHeqh8 4. Qin Yin Ban 《琴音板》, also spelled Bian Yin Ban 《变音板》
Video of "Qin Yin Ban," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Qin Yin Ban":
5. Qing Yin Chuan 《清音串》
Video of "Qing Yin Chuan," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OQPqcF7CwE
Video of "Qing Yin Chuan," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEofM59TrWg
Video of "Qing Yin Chuan," performed by ensemble: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEofM59TrWg 6. Ping Yun Chuan 《平韵串》
Video of "Ping Yun Chuan," performed by ensemble: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J5D_JP5UKYQ Video of "Ping Yun Chuan," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Ping Yun Chuan," performed by ensemble:
7. Yue'er Gao 《月儿高》 (The Moon On High)
Video of "Yue'er Gao," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Yue'er Gao," performed by ensemble: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lxPsLjFP8D0 8. Qin Yin Yue'er Gao 《琴音月儿高》
Video of "Qin Yin Yue'er Gao," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFx5dCCDtwU
Video of "Qin Yin Yue'er Gao," performed by ensemble:
9. Pu'an Zhou 《普庵咒》 (Incantation of [the Monk] Pu'an)
Video of "Pu'an Zhou," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WV9EZTwrQAY Video of "Pu'an Zhou," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Pu'an Zhou":
10. Haiqing 《海青》 (The Gyrfalcon)
Video of "Haiqing," performed by ensemble:
Video of a live performance of "Haiqing," performed by ensemble (version 1): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sxbp-0htEc Video of a live performance of "Haiqing," performed by ensemble (version 2): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ggCN7rdV6g
Video of a live performance of "Haiqing," performed by ensemble (version 3):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B-ODNLzjNzw
11. Yangguan San Die 《阳关三叠》
Video of "Yangguan San Die," performed by ensemble: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bflGoKjVlk Video of "Yangguan San Die," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Yangguan San Die," performed by guzheng solo:
12. Song Qing Ye You 《松青夜游》
Video of "Song Qing Ye You," performed by ensemble:
Video of "Song Qing Ye You," performed by ensemble:
13. Wu Ming Ma 《舞名马》 (The Dancing Horse)
Video of "Wu Ming Ma," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbREgQw05MQ
Video of "Wu Ming Ma," performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DpkXdOqKNuc

Video of a live performance of various pieces, performed by ensemble:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYv3K5SNC0k

Video documentary about "Xiansuo Beikao," part 1:

Video documentary about "Xiansuo Beikao," part 2:

----------------------------------------------

Suijin Cipu

Suijin Cipu 《碎金词谱》, published in 1844 by Xie Yuanhuai (谢元淮, 1784-1867), includes 558 songs and musical pieces in gongche notation.  The "Suijin" (碎金) in the work's title, literally meaning "bits of gold," is a metaphor for brief masterpieces, while "Cipu" (词谱) refers to scores based on ci poems.

Facsimile of Suijin Cipu (in several volumes):

----------------------------------------------

"Programme of Chinese Music"

● The Illustrated Catalogue of the Chinese Collection of Exhibits for the International Health Exhibition, London, 1884 (London:  William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1884) contains a "Programme of Chinese Music" containing 16 pieces in staff notation from pp. 158 to 171, pieces 1-10 being instrumental pieces and pieces 11-16 being vocal pieces; a further 29 pieces (22 vocal pieces and 7 operatic pieces) are described in text form, but without notation.  Most of the pieces seem to have been transcribed from the repertoire of a 6-member troupe of musicians from Beijing who sang, played, and acted, brought to London for the International Health Exhibition of 1884.

The notated pieces in this collection are as follows:
Instrumental pieces
1. Hoa Tchou Ko (= Hua Zhu Ge) 《华祝歌》 (Chinese National Anthem)
2. Ta Pa-Pan (= Da Ba Ban) 《大八板》 (The Eight Boards)
3. Kai Shu-Pa'rh (Opening the Hand)
4. Ta 'Hua-Ku 'Rh (= Da Hua Gu'er) 大花鼓儿 (The Flowered Drum)
5. Ta Ku-Pa'rh (The Large Drum)
6. Liu Ching Niang (= Liu Qing Niang) 柳青娘 (The Maid of the Green Willow)
7. Ku-Niang-Piao (The Girl's Watch)
8. Mama Hao Ming-Pai (= Mama Hao Mingbai) 妈妈好明白 (Mother Understands Me Well)
9. Funeral March
10. Wedding March
Vocal pieces
11. Chin-Lang-Fang (Alone at Home)
12. Wang-Ta-Niang (= Wang Da Niang) 王大娘 (Dame Wang)
13. Yen'-Hua-Liu-Hsiang (The Abode of Love)
14. Ta Hsin Ch'un (The Widow's Lament)
15. 'Hua Shan Mien (Painting Fans)
16. Shuai Ching Chia (Breaking the Looking-Glass)

Facsimile of Illustrated Catalogue of the Chinese Collection of Exhibits for the International Health Exhibition, London, 1884:

----------------------------------------------

Gong Jin Ou

"Gong Jin Ou" 《巩金瓯》 (The Cup of Solid Gold) was the national anthem of the Qing Dynasty between 1911 and 1912.  It is said to have been adapted by a senior official of the Qing court from coronation music for emperors of the Ming Dynasty.

Score of "Gong Jin Ou":

Video of "Gong Jin Ou" (1):

Video of "Gong Jin Ou" (2):

Video of "Gong Jin Ou" (3) (excerpt from a film):

● Wikipedia article about "Gong Jin Ou":
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cup_of_Solid_Gold

----------------------------------------------

Qing-Era Reference Works

Qing Shigao 清史稿》 (Draft History of Qing), the official history of the Qing Dynasty, was published in draft form in 1928 (actually during the Republic Period).
https://zh.wikisource.org/wiki/%E6%B8%85%E5%8F%B2%E7%A8%BF

----------------------------------------------

Qing Court Ensembles

In the Qing Dynasty, there were nine yanyue ensembles maintained in the palace at Beijing, as follows: 1. Dui Wu Yue (队舞乐, Manchu group dances, with music) 2. Wa'erka Bu Yue (瓦尔喀部乐, music and dance of the Warka, a group of Donghai Jurchens)
3. Chaoxian Yue (朝鲜乐, Korean music and acrobatics) 4. Menggu Yue (蒙古乐, Mongolian music)
5. Hui Bu Yue (回部乐, Uyghur music and dance from the Tarim Basin)
6. Fanzi Yue (番子乐, Tibetan music and dance)
7. Kuo'erka Bu Yue (廓尔喀部乐, Gurkha music and dance from Nepal) 8. Miandian Guo Yue (缅甸国乐, Burmese music and dance) 9. Annan Guo Yue (安南国乐, Vietnamese music and dance)

http://big5.zhengjian.org/node/43910

----------------------------------------------

Bibliography

 Levis, John Hazedel.  Foundations of Chinese Musical Art.  Peiping:  Henri Vetch, 1936.
● Rawski, Evelyn S.  "The Creation of an Emperor in Eighteenth-Century China."  In Harmony and Counterpoint:  Ritual Music in Chinese Context (Stanford University Press, 1996).
● Thrasher, Alan R., ed.  Qupai in Chinese Music: Melodic Models in Form and Practice.  New York and London:  Routledge, 2016.
https://www.amazon.com/Qupai-Chinese-Music-Routledge-Ethnomusicology/dp/1138936243

----------------------------------------------
Thanks to 
Rubén García-Benito, François Picard, Keith Robinson, and Lin Chiang-san for assistance with this page.